Religious radicalism in the form of violent extremism runs contrary to the principles of human rights and democracy. It also resists the establishment of a modern state in Indonesia and other countries in Southeast Asia. The Responsibility to Protect (R2P), a UN-initiated global political commitment, warned that several Southeast Asian countries, such as the Philippines and Myanmar, are at great risk of atrocity crimes. Civilians in Marawi, the Philippines, were the victims of the brutality of the Maute militant group backed by ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria). Meanwhile, the Rohingya, an ethic Muslim community in Myanmar, are under the threat of genocide perpetrated by the Myanmar military regime, prompting retaliatory attacks from the Rohingya National Army (RNA) and the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army.
In 2017, over the course of five months in trying to restore order and stability in Marawi by the Philippine security forces, the number of civilian casualties was significant. At least 165 Philippine military and law enforcement personnel were estimated to have died. As for the Maute rebel group, some 908 militants were reportedly killed. Furthermore, over 10,000 civilians sought refuge in emergency shelters. With assistance from its allies, the Philippine government in the end managed to regain control of Marawi from the ISISbacked Maute militants.